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Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! This volume is the second of a two-part series dealing with the theoretical, definitional, methodological, and developmental issues involved in investigating the role of orthography in reading and writing.

Although research on orthography has a long history in experimental psychology and neuropsychology, it was relatively neglected during the past decade when researchers turned their attention to phonological processes in literacy. However, interest in orthography is reemerging as the research reported in this series demonstrates. Taken together, the two volumes report evidence for shared and independent genetic pathways, shared and independent electrophysiological brain activity, and shared and independent behavioral indices of orthographic and phonological processes and emphasize the similarities and differences of orthographies across languages.

Volume II proposes a theoretical framework based on the multiple dimensions of orthographic knowledge for guiding future research on the relationship of orthography to phonology, reading, and writing. This two-part series is directed toward an audience of basic and applied researchers and graduated students in cognitive and developmental psychology, neuropsychology, linguistics, and education. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Berninger Editor. Be the first to write a review.

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New Insights on Developmental Dyslexia Subtypes: Heterogeneity of Mixed Reading Profiles

Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! The authors even hypothesize that low naming speed for letters or digits may be a sign of an alteration in the automation process To be able to read in a language that uses an alphabetic writing system, understanding the alphabetical principle of phonographic correspondence is imperative. Children who present with difficulty during RAN may be less sensitive to orthographic patterns. In other words, despite language's irregularity, it would be possible to adapt to the incidence of determined sequence of letters.

Only letter combinations that were possible in that language would be understood, possibly making reading faster 3 , 5 , 8 - Despite national 15 - 17 and international 18 - 20 literature pointing to the relationship between phonologic abilities and acquiring and developing reading, studies dedicated to verifying these abilities through formal protocols or evaluation in students in the early phase of alphabetization are scarce in national literature.

The more developed a child's phonological system, the more perfected their linguistic representations.

Orthography

Authors Snowling and Hulme 21 claim this perfecting allows a better performance in other cognitive activities such as increased phonologic working memory. In this manner, the gap in phonologic abilities could partially justify difficulties in operational memory After all, greater competence in recognizing written words in a fast and accurate manner means more cognitive resources available for the task of reading comprehension.


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The authors suggest the ability to process visual symbols quickly also plays an important role in learning to read and write in an alphabetical orthographic writing system due to participation of the occipital-temporal region, and that a disorder in this ability may constitute a second deficit in phoneme awareness 7 , 10 , 22 , The studies of Denckla and Rudel 4 , and of Geschind and Fusillo 24 are based on nonscientific publications that suggest the existence of cognitive components involved in naming colors and which would also be related to naming "labeled" abstract symbols, visual stimuli which would be important to performance in reading, presenting, therefore, similar cognitive needs.

These hypotheses were investigated and developed 4 , 25 , 26 and verified that graphic stimuli letters and digits were recovered with greater speed when compared to colors, evidencing the difference between readers and dyslexia and readers with other kinds of reading difficulties. Other studies have shown that children with learning disorders may also eventually present with problems in accessing lexicon due to different levels of processing information and that the speed with which stimuli are named is directly connected to speed of access to short term memory and phonological naming, thus influencing the development of reading and writing 3 , 5.

The ability to quickly process visual symbols is usually evaluated through rapid automatized naming tasks.

The Varieties of Orthographic Knowledge

These tasks evaluate the time spent by the individual in naming a series of familiar visual stimuli colors, letters, digits and objects as quickly as possible. Since speed is also an important factor in fluent textual reading, it is not surprising that performance in rapid automatized naming tasks correlates to performance in fluently reading texts With that in mind, the objective of this research was to evaluate the speed of RAN in 6- to 7-year-old schoolchildren 1st year of elementary school and evaluate the difference in Rapid Automatized Naming subtests of colors, letters, numbers and objects.

It is a transversal, non experimental study. In this study participated 30 children of both masculine and feminine gender aged between 6 and 7 enrolled in the first year of primary school. The Rapid Automatized Naming - RAN 4 , 6 test, composed by subtests of colors, digits, letters and objects naming, was used. Subtests are composed of 5 different stimuli which alternate between themselves, forming a total of 10 sequential lines in a total of 50 stimuli.

Colors subtest is composed by the colors green, red, yellow, black, and blue. Letters subtest is composed by the letters p, d, o, a, and s. Digits subtest is composed by the numbers 6, 2, 4, 9, and 7. And objects subtest is composed by pictures of the following objects: comb, umbrella, key, watch, and scissor. Inclusion factors were being enrolled in school and not having a complaint of learning or visual or auditive acuity problems, not using neuropsychiatric medication and now complaint of behavioral alterations.

Subjects who did not fit this criteria were excluded. These aspects were verified by the teachers in the classroom and also by the students' health information and school chart. Tests were applied at the same school the students attended in a time slot opposite their usual school period, and each test took 20 minutes.


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  • Instruments used included an identification and triage form and the application protocol for the phonological recoding speed test. The test was only applied after orientation and after checking that the child knew all the symbols that were to be used. This study did not verify significant differences between genders.

    Average performance between four subtests indicated that rapid automatized naming speed was better between subjects that were 7 years old Table 1. Differences between genders were not found in the same age group, therefore there is no need for separate Tables of correction and on performance for boys and girls inside each age bracket.

    Table 3 is divided by age, 10 six year-old students and 20 seven year-old students. Naming letters and numbers come even later, alongside the first years of school, resulting in basic differences in speed Other studies are based in neuroscience, which suggests the existence of cognitive components involved in naming colors and which would also be related to naming "labeled" abstract symbols, visual stimuli which would be an important factor to performance in reading, presenting, therefore, similar cognitive needs Language presents a regular structure in the formation of words.

    Stimuli can be decoded using a relatively smaller number of phonological abilities. The author references the inexistence of difference in naming speed in normal children Faster naming of letters and digits in comparison to colors confirm findings, since naming these stimuli requires the use of more effective attention and visual perceptive processes such as discrimination and analysis-synthesis 25 , 28 , Denckla and Rudel 4 demonstrate that a small group of children with severe dyslexia presented with a deficit in naming colors, just like in a study with adults who suffer from alexia the deficit was attributed to slow speed or tardiness in naming colors in comparison to normal individuals.

    In , Denckla 29 evaluated children between 5 and 10 years of age, concluding that children over 6 named letters and numbers with more speed than colors and objects.

    Defining Key Concepts in Language and Literacy Development

    These findings showed the difference in serial naming of different semantical categories relates directly to stimulation to which the children had been exposed. The author claimed the existence of a small difference in naming speed between boys and girls in the color task. The difference between genders showed that girls are faster than boys, which relates to how girls develop language faster due to an early neurological maturation in the left hemisphere Our results showed that digits and objects were named faster than colors, and that letters were named more slowly by 6 year old children.

    I: Theoretical and Developmental Issues

    These findings are compatible with the authors', who affirmed object naming capacity is learned precociously, leading to greated speed and ease In another study, with children, authors showed that serial naming tests for several different visual stimuli colors, letters, numbers, objects made it possible to differentiate between dyslexic individuals and individuals with learning difficulties, and not only between dyslexic and students with no learning complaints, since dyslexic individuals presented with inferior naming speed in comparison to those with learning difficulties The ability to name letters of the alphabet comes in second place in a naming ranking after naming objects as a predisposing factor to reading.

    The authos also says that fully understanding how normal 5 year old children develop each naming category would certainly bring knowledge to several researchers on how to evaluate dyslexic children or those with reading difficulties Visual stimuli recoding and sound categorization need simultaneously information processing and storage. Sound categorization activities are more effective when there is correct storage in working memory. This capacity is a determining factor in phonological conscience activities and relates to the development of reading skills 31 , These results also point to the need of continuity of this study, as lesser knowledge of the profile of students in the early stages of alphabetization in regards to metaphonological skills and reading mastery compromises the teacher's ability to detect in the early stages students who are at risk for difficulties in learning to read and write.

    Refl ex. The ABCs of computerized naming: equivalency, reliability, and predictive validity of a computerized rapid automatized naming RAN task. J Neuroscie Methods.

    Rev Soc Bras Fonoaudiol. Temas Desenvolv. Compton DL. Modeling the relationship between growth in rapid naming speed and growth in decoding skill in first-grade children. J Educ Psychol. An experimental comparison between rival theories of rapid automatized naming performance and its relationship to reading.