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Challenges and opportunities for the greening of separation science in the pharmaceutical industry
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Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. Mainly, SMB process allows for higher throughput than batch process but lacks the flexibility of batch process which can handle complex mixtures. As of today, it is accepted that respective advantages of each process cannot be shared. Our patented process called Inexiotech takes in a completely new input to the game, an idea deriving from the field of wave physics. We propose a breakthrough technology that has been identified as truly original by patent offices and experts in the field.
This disruptive approach allows for the resolution of multicomponent mixtures in a serial, two-step continuous process. Experimental data as well as computer models show that the process is considerably more versatile than SMB and can show higher yields or lower solvent consumption than other existing process. First applications to actual semi-industrial scale challenges confirm its feasibility and its potential. The concept does not involve any specific hardware development and can be implemented on any usual preparative liquid chromatography system.
It can be applied to any type of stationary phase, and therefore to an extremely wide range of applications, including small molecules or biotech API and food ingredients. Inexiotech opens the possibility to transform any batch process into a continuous mode without major modification to the production's equipment. It could also allow existing methods based on oil-derived solvents to switch to green solvents without decreasing yield or performance.
However, the development and scale-up of chromatographic processes present unique challenges that are difficult to predict and often difficult to solve.
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In particular, synthetic peptides can exhibit a tendency to aggregate due to the amphipathic character of many amino acids. Aggregation at the microscopic scale imparts substantial changes to the physical properties of a peptide solution that manifest as increased viscosity, precipitation, or in the worst case, irreversible gelation.
These effects are problematic for downstream processing, especially pre-column filtration and chromatography. In this work, we present various cases in which avoiding peptide aggregation has played a commanding role in the development and scale-up of preparative chromatographic processes. The technique is increasingly being used for the purification of achiral and naturally occurring compounds as its advantages become better known and more stationary phases suitable for the essentially normal phase separations become available.
Most of the advantages of SFC over alternative preparative chromatographic techniques can be derived from a consideration of the properties of supercritical carbon dioxide and its mixtures with organic co-solvents. Starting from the phase diagram for carbon dioxide, the operating conditions for preparative SFC with and without CO2 recycling can easily be determined.
Readers seeking more in-depth analyses can consult the extensive reference lists accompanying each chapter.
Edited by Herbert W. Atwood University of Kentucky, Lexington. This volume is the first of a three-part series focusing on fundamental, biological, and applied aspects of the group 13 elements. Although it contains only four chapters, this book nicely illustrates recent developments in this area. The first chapter, written by Hopfl, covers the synthesis of boron compounds with macrocycles and cagelike structures.tolsen.com.ua/images/132/740-agencias-matrimoniales.php
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Applications of boron-containing hosts in ionic and molecular recognition are also discussed. The author is especially successful in describing the similarities of the boron compounds with organic, coordination, and organometallic analogues, making this chapter of interest to a broad range of chemists. The second chapter, which focuses on multiple bonding between heavier group 13 elements, was written by Power, the leading expert of this field. Considering that the first authentic reports on compounds featuring a group group 13 multiple bond were not published until , this chapter has a description of some very recent developments, some of which are currently the subject of controversy.
Here the authors argue that group 13 organometallics, which are currently considered only as cocatalysts, might become outstanding catalysts on their own if the right ligands can be designed. This is one of the very rare reviews available concerning cationic group 13 derivatives. The last chapter by Schulz outlines the unique nature of the combination of group 13 and 15 heavier main group element chemistry. In view of the importance of group element compounds in semiconducting materials, this chapter might be of interest not only to inorganic chemists but also to material scientists as well.
Overall, the book is well written, and the editors have done an excellent job in selecting the topics and authors. It gives a good account of the current and future importance of main group chemistry, which appears to be at the intersection of many subdisciplines in chemistry. Davis University of New South Wales.
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ISBN X. The field of free radical polymerization has undergone a renaissance in the past 12 years, making this compendium on the topic timely and extremely valuable. The editors have solicited chapters from experts in the field, covering a wide range of important topics in a scholarly fashion. This book is appropriate for an audience ranging from advanced beginners to experts in the field.
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It does an excellent job of referencing the primary literature and should serve as a valuable resource in the form of a readable compilation as well as a source of important references through Chapter 1 focuses on the theory of radical reactions, including transition-state theory and computational quantum chemistry. The next chapter is a masterfully written overview of smallmolecule free-radical chemistry including basic reactivity, fundamental principles, common synthetic methods, and kinetics.
This is followed by a chapter in which the general aspects of radical polymerization, including initiation, propagation, chain transfer, inhibition, and termination, are discussed. This is the one chapter that is difficult to follow in parts because the authors tend to discuss specifics without using enough accompanying figures. Chapter 4 is a clearly written treatment of the kinetics of free-radical polymerization, including the rates of initiation, propagation, and termination, and covers experimental methods for determining these values.
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The kinetics of copolymerization are the subject of the next chapter. Chapter 6 on heterogeneous systems starts with a clear descriptive introduction on suspension, emulsion, dispersion, and precipitation polymerization, which is followed by a more technical treatment, and ends with a discussion of living radical polymerization in dispersed media. The discussion in Chapter 7 on industrial applications and processes focuses on issues of process scale-up.
The next five chapters are directed toward controlled or living free-radical polymerization LFRP.