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The host harbouring an agent that is in a mature or sexually active stage phase is called the definitive host. The intermediate host comes in contact during the larvae stage. A host can be anything living and can attain to asexual and sexual reproduction. For instance, for genotype 1 hepatitis C treated with Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a or Pegylated interferon-alpha-2b brand names Pegasys or PEG-Intron combined with ribavirin , it has been shown that genetic polymorphisms near the human IL28B gene, encoding interferon lambda 3, are associated with significant differences in the treatment-induced clearance of the virus.

This finding, originally reported in Nature, [34] showed that genotype 1 hepatitis C patients carrying certain genetic variant alleles near the IL28B gene are more possibly to achieve sustained virological response after the treatment than others. Later report from Nature [35] demonstrated that the same genetic variants are also associated with the natural clearance of the genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection.

Several broad types of anti-infective drugs exist, depending on the type of organism targeted; they include antibacterial antibiotic ; including antitubercular , antiviral , antifungal and antiparasitic including antiprotozoal and antihelminthic agents. Depending on the severity and the type of infection, the antibiotic may be given by mouth or by injection, or may be applied topically.

Severe infections of the brain are usually treated with intravenous antibiotics. Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and do not affect viruses. Antibiotics work by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria or killing the bacteria.


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The most common classes of antibiotics used in medicine include penicillin , cephalosporins , aminoglycosides , macrolides , quinolones and tetracyclines. Not all infections require treatment, and for many self-limiting infections the treatment may cause more side-effects than benefits. Antimicrobial stewardship is the concept that healthcare providers should treat an infection with an antimicrobial that specifically works well for the target pathogen for the shortest amount of time and to only treat when there is a known or highly suspected pathogen that will respond to the medication.

In , about 10 million people died of infectious diseases. The following table lists the top infectious disease by number of deaths in Childhood diseases include pertussis , poliomyelitis , diphtheria , measles and tetanus. Children also make up a large percentage of lower respiratory and diarrheal deaths. In , approximately 3. A pandemic or global epidemic is a disease that affects people over an extensive geographical area.

In most cases, microorganisms live in harmony with their hosts via mutual or commensal interactions. Diseases can emerge when existing parasites become pathogenic or when new pathogenic parasites enter a new host. Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and rickettsia, [53] and spread of vector-borne diseases, [52] see also globalization and disease and wildlife disease :. A basic form of contagion theory dates back to medicine in the medieval Islamic world , where it was proposed by Persian physician Ibn Sina known as Avicenna in Europe in The Canon of Medicine , which later became the most authoritative medical textbook in Europe up until the 16th century.

In Book IV of the Canon , Ibn Sina discussed epidemics , outlining the classical miasma theory and attempting to blend it with his own early contagion theory. He mentioned that people can transmit disease to others by breath, noted contagion with tuberculosis , and discussed the transmission of disease through water and dirt.

BACTERIAL DISEASES IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The fiqh scholar Ibn al-Haj al-Abdari c. In the midth century John Snow and William Budd did important work demonstrating the contagiousness of typhoid and cholera through contaminated water. Both are credited with decreasing epidemics of cholera in their towns by implementing measures to prevent contamination of water. Robert Koch , provided the study of infectious diseases with a scientific basis known as Koch's postulates.

Edward Jenner , Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin developed effective vaccines for smallpox and polio , which would later result in the eradication and near-eradication of these diseases, respectively. Alexander Fleming discovered the world's first antibiotic , Penicillin , which Florey and Chain then developed. Gerhard Domagk developed sulphonamides , the first broad spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs. The medical treatment of infectious diseases falls into the medical field of Infectious Disease and in some cases the study of propagation pertains to the field of Epidemiology.

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Generally, infections are initially diagnosed by primary care physicians or internal medicine specialists. For example, an "uncomplicated" pneumonia will generally be treated by the internist or the pulmonologist lung physician. The work of the infectious diseases specialist therefore entails working with both patients and general practitioners, as well as laboratory scientists , immunologists , bacteriologists and other specialists.


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A number of studies have reported associations between pathogen load in an area and human behavior. Higher pathogen load is associated with decreased size of ethnic and religious groups in an area. This may be due high pathogen load favoring avoidance of other groups, which may reduce pathogen transmission, or a high pathogen load preventing the creation of large settlements and armies that enforce a common culture. Higher pathogen load is also associated with more restricted sexual behavior, which may reduce pathogen transmission.

It also associated with higher preferences for health and attractiveness in mates. Higher fertility rates and shorter or less parental care per child is another association that may be a compensation for the higher mortality rate. There is also an association with polygyny which may be due to higher pathogen load, making selecting males with a high genetic resistance increasingly important. Higher pathogen load is also associated with more collectivism and less individualism, which may limit contacts with outside groups and infections.

There are alternative explanations for at least some of the associations although some of these explanations may in turn ultimately be due to pathogen load. Thus, polygny may also be due to a lower male:female ratio in these areas but this may ultimately be due to male infants having increased mortality from infectious diseases. Another example is that poor socioeconomic factors may ultimately in part be due to high pathogen load preventing economic development. Evidence of infection in fossil remains is a subject of interest for paleopathologists , scientists who study occurrences of injuries and illness in extinct life forms.

Signs of infection have been discovered in the bones of carnivorous dinosaurs. When present, however, these infections seem to tend to be confined to only small regions of the body. A skull attributed to the early carnivorous dinosaur Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis exhibits pit-like wounds surrounded by swollen and porous bone. The unusual texture of the bone around the wounds suggests they were afflicted by a short-lived, non-lethal infection.

Scientists who studied the skull speculated that the bite marks were received in a fight with another Herrerasaurus. Other carnivorous dinosaurs with documented evidence of infection include Acrocanthosaurus , Allosaurus , Tyrannosaurus and a tyrannosaur from the Kirtland Formation.

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The infections from both tyrannosaurs were received by being bitten during a fight, like the Herrerasaurus specimen. A Space Shuttle experiment found that Salmonella typhimurium , a bacterium that can cause food poisoning , became more virulent when cultivated in space. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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For the medical specialty, see Infectious disease medical specialty. For other uses, see Infection disambiguation. Main article: Transmission medicine. Main article: Paleopathology. Main articles: Effect of spaceflight on the human body , Medical treatment during spaceflight , and Space medicine. Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Infectious Diseases Biological hazard Blood-borne disease Coinfection Copenhagen Consensus Cordon sanitaire Disease diffusion mapping Foodborne illness Gene therapy History of medicine Hospital-acquired infection Eradication of infectious diseases Human Microbiome Project Infection control Isolation health care List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota List of causes of death by rate List of diseases caused by insects List of epidemics List of infectious diseases Mathematical modelling of infectious disease Membrane vesicle trafficking Multiplicity of infection Neglected tropical diseases Social distancing Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler STEM Spillover infection Threshold host density Transmission medicine Ubi pus, ibi evacua Latin: "where there is pus , there evacuate it" Vaccine-preventable diseases Waterborne diseases.

News Ghana. Retrieved 21 November Association of American Medical Colleges. Archived from the original on Retrieved Infectious disease is the subspecialty of internal medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of communicable diseases of all types, in all organs, and in all ages of patients. Medical microbiology. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. New York: Norton.

Baron, Samuel MD. Medical Microbiology. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.


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Archived from the original on June 29, Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed. McGraw Hill. Golden; Fred Peterson The Truth About Illness and Disease. Infobase Publishing, Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved 4 July Nature Immunology. Feb Journal of Pathogens. American Journal of Infection Control. Six degrees: the science of a connected age. London: William Heinemann.

Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control

The hot zone. Garden City, N. Bibcode : Sci Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Bibcode : Natur. August Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. CBC News. North Carolina Digital History. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Washington, D. Emerg Infect Dis. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt 27 January Encyclopedia of the Black Death.