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Literature of ALLEN, G.R. | Literature | Shark-References

Learn more. The Tropical Eastern Pacific Biogeographic Region TEP is delimited by steep thermal gradients to the north and south, by a wide expanse of open ocean the East Pacific Barrier to the west, and by the Central American land mass to the east. The occurrence of 33 chaenopsid fish species within these provinces, as well as other oceanic islands or archipelagos in the TEP Isla de Malpelo, Isla del Coco, and Islas Revillagigedo were tallied based on literature records and observations of museum specimens. Chaenopsid distributions within the TEP support these hypothesized provinces and their intervening gaps.

Of the remaining chaenopsids in the Mexican Province, three are widespread, occurring in all three mainland provinces, four are shared only with the Cortez Province, and two are shared only with the Panamic Province.

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Within the TEP, the Pelagic Gap is the most effective crossed by only 3 of 33 species adjacent to it , followed by the Central American Gap crossed by 5 of 21 species , and the Sinaloan Gap crossed by 7 of 17 species. Only one species, Chaenopsis alepidota, which is found off southern California and in the Cortez Province, crosses a barrier delimiting the TEP.

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Of the barriers delimiting the TEP, the most important in the recent evolution of chaenopsids is the Isthmian Barrier which is implicated in six speciation events. Volume , Issue 3. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.

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If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Search for more papers by this author. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Zapata, unpublished data. However, traditional sampling methods such as visual surveys often fail to detect small and cryptic species Ackerman and Bellwood, In this study, we report four species in coral habitats of Gorgona Island, three of which represent southward range extensions in the TEP.

This method allows detecting small and cryptic fish species, which usually cannot be detected visually Robertson and Smith-Vaniz, Body measurements and meristic counts of these individuals are shown in Table 1. Species were identified using Robertson and Allen's information system, some of the original species descriptions Gilbert, ; Bussing, and other publications Hildebrand, ; Dawson, A fourth species, the honeycomb toby, Canthigaster janthinoptera Bleeker, , Tetraodontidae, which is less cryptic than those mentioned above, was directly observed at Gorgona and Malpelo Islands and identified based on photographs taken at the former e.

Figure 3. Photographed individuals were identified using Robertson and Allen's information system, Allen and Randall's review and by personal communications with J. Randall and D. Its color pattern, morphometric and meristic characters were consistent with the species as reported by Bussing with five dark brown bars on a pale white body, upper half of pectoral fin and base of caudal fin dark brown, two narrow bars radiating from eye one vertical and one oblique across the operculum and two on the nape.

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As in the original description by Gilbert , the specimen has a thin body with a wide depressed head; a well-defined line demarcating the upper half of the head and body, which is lighter in color with fine dark spots , from the darker brown lower half, which becomes paler near the caudal fin; yellowish or white fins with some dark coloration at the base of the caudal and pectoral fin the color pattern mostly disappeared following preservation. As described in Dawson and followed by Robertson and Allen , the specimen shows a dark brownish-gray body that is paler on its lower part.

It has small pale-gray dots along the body axis and a white irregular dot behind the eye. Dorsal and pectoral fins are uncolored, while the tiny caudal fin is brownish color pattern disappeared completely following preservation. Several individuals of Canthigaster janthinoptera e. Key features for identification of this species are the green lines radiating from the eye and a semi-annular arrangement of intermittent lines surrounding a dark spot more conspicuous on individuals from the Indo-Pacific at the base of the dorsal fin Figure 3 ; photographs in Robertson and Allen, However, because the overall color pattern of Canthigaster janthinoptera is similar to that of C.

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Furthermore, the lines radiating from the eye in C. However, in C. This coloration, though not stated in Allen and Randall's review, is absent from C. Canthigaster janthinoptera and C. Because the green lines radiating from the eye are very short, the green or greenish spots on the body can be very pale, and the annular arrangement of lines around a dark spot at the base of the dorsal fin can be weakly developed or even absent in C.

Genetic analyses appear necessary to establish more precisely the taxonomic status of the "intermediates" observed at Gorgona and Malpelo islands. The occurrence of Gobulus crescentalis and Chriolepis cuneata at Gorgona Island southwardly extends their known geographic distribution approximately km towards the equator.

Gobulus crescentalis was formerly known from the central outer coast of the Baja California peninsula and throughout the Gulf of California to Panama and Isla del Coco Thomson et al. Findley, PhD. Therefore, its occurrence at Colombia's Gorgona Island was not unexpected. All three previous species are cryptic and secretive in habit, making visual detection in the field difficult and hampering documentation of accurate distributional ranges.

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Its occurrence at both Gorgona and Malpelo Islands suggests that this species might be more widespread in the TEP than previously thought. We thank J.

Benitez and S. Cuevas for help during field work, D. Robertson and J. Randall for help identifying our photographs of Canthigaster janthinoptera , A. Findley and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments on previous versions of the manuscript. This study was financially supported by grant No.