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There has also been a wide consensus among scholars that stage theories of teacher reflection that seek to help student teachers transcend reflection about technical issues of teaching so that they can focus exclusively on the social and political aspects of teaching are misguided eg. Despite all of these and other developments in the work on teacher reflection, there is still much conceptual confusion in my view about what people actually mean by the term reflection-whether they are attempting to promote a genuine kind of teacher learning that moves beyond the compliant implementation of external directives, and even if the teacher learning aimed for is genuine, whether there is a link in their efforts to struggles within and outside of education to bring about a world with greater social justice for everyone.

In recent years, deprofesionalization of the work of teachers has intensified in many countries throughout the world in response to pressures from neo-liberal and neo-conservative policies and the very idea of public education is in doubt in many places eg. Given the political and economic situation in much of the world today it is very easy for teacher reflection to merely become a tool to more subtlety controlling teachers.

The real challenge for us is to work against the grain and make our work in teacher education contribute to a lessening of these destructive tendencies and to connect what we do in our teacher education classrooms to struggles of educators and citizens everywhere to move us closer to a world where everyone's children has access to the means and conditions that will help them lead productive and rewarding lives.

It is my belief that unless we make our work part of this broader struggle, reflective teacher education is not worthy of our support.

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Unfortunately in my view, most of the rhetoric about reflection in teacher education today, even after all of the critiques, fails to incorporate the kind of social and political analysis that is necessary to see and then to challenge the structures that continue to undermine the achievement of our noblest goals as educators. I am optimistic though that teacher educators will rise up to the challenge and ensure that the goal of reflection in teacher education does not help to unconsciously reproduce the status quo.

The goal of working for social justice is a fundamental part of the work of teacher educators in democratic societies and we should never compromise on anything that will help us make progress toward its realization. Neither the teachers colleges nor the schools can legislate democracy. But something can be done to empower teachers to reflect upon their own life situations, to speak out in their own ways about the lacks that must be repaired, the possibilities to be acted upon in the name of what they deem to be decent, humane and just.

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Reflection : turning experience into learning.

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Research on teacher education. Handbook of research on teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally, The content of student teachers' reflections within different structures for facilitating the reflective process. Teachers and teaching : from classroom to reflection. A class act : changing teachers' work, the state, and globalization. Geographers have recognized, however, that observable geometries in the social and physical worlds are dynamic in their nature and multidimensional in their explanation.

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Certain geographic patterns reflect efficiency as in economic production systems , but only under rather narrowly defined conditions that are subject to change such as the time or cost of travel and to inherent variability. Together, change and inherent variability often influence the observed variation, which can take the form of unsystematic departures from central tendency, changes to the central tendency itself, or alterations in the variance structure.

Changes in variation can signal shifts from one system state to another; therefore, variation cannot be. Geographic research into the nature of change and variability, as well as into central tendency, has revealed much about the dynamics of places Dendrinos, As in other sciences, geographers also have recognized that variation and central tendency are usually interdependent and cannot be evaluated or understood separately.

A geographic perspective recognizes that economic changes can create or exacerbate economic imbalances across places, whether or not the economic system overall is trending toward or away from equilibrium. A particular concern of geographers is the implications of economic change for different groups in society within a place, especially for groups distinguished by class, gender, and race. Related issues include the composition of the work force as rooted in social forces and potentials for cooperation versus conflict see Sidebar 5.

Geographers have examined high-technology centers to evaluate their potential as models for regional growth in other areas see Sidebar 5. They have noted that locational considerations are different for innovation centers than for other industrial activities such as branch plants e.

Since labor is less mobile than capital, regional growth related to technological change is likely to follow existing patterns of labor skills, which increases the challenges for areas that do not now have competitive skill levels Malecki, Scientific concerns about environmental change have increased markedly in the past few decades. Geographers have made important contributions to the understanding of such changes through their research on human-induced climate change, ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity, and earth surface processes.

For example, human populations are increasingly concentrated in urban and suburban regions.