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The Great Depression

Indeed, throughout the Hoover and Roosevelt administrations, the demand to rebuild the American economy and end rampant unemployment forced U. While the mids saw the rise conquest of militaristic regimes in Germany, Japan, and Italy, the United States remained entrenched in isolation from foreign affairs as the federal government struggled with the Great Depression.

Between and , the U. Congress, over the objections of President Roosevelt, enacted a series of Neutrality Acts specifically intended to prevent the United States from taking any role of any nature in potential foreign wars. The lack of any significant U. Still, many U. Other leaders, including President Roosevelt, believed that U. As late as , however, keeping the U.

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When France finally fell to Germany in the summer of , the U. Share Flipboard Email. Senate, however, defeated the bill and left the early payments unfunded. Most of the Bonus Army camped in a Hooverville —the slang name given to shantytowns built by the poor during the Depression throughout the s—on the Anacostia Flats, a swampy, muddy area across the Anacostia River from the federal core of Washington D. The campsites, built from materials scavenged from a nearby rubbish dump, were tightly controlled by the veterans who laid out streets within the site, built sanitation facilities, and held daily parades.

To live in the camps, veterans were required to register and prove they had been honorably discharged from service. On July 28, U. Attorney General William D. Mitchell ordered the veterans to be removed from all government property. The protesters returned, however, and Washington police who met with resistance shot two veterans, who later died of their wounds.

Upon learning of the shootings, Hoover ordered the army to clear the veterans from Washington. Bonus Army Conflict : A photograph of Bonus Army marchers confronting the police who attempted to clear out their campsites during protests in Washington, D. Thousands of civil service workers lined the streets to watch, and Bonus Army marchers cheered for the troops they believed were there to honor them as veterans.

After burning shelters and belongings, the troops were ordered to stand down by Hoover, but MacArthur ordered another assault, claiming the protest was an attempt to overthrow the federal government. The Bonus Army incident did not affect the military careers of MacArthur or Patton, who was roundly criticized for dismissing an approach by a decorated veteran who had reportedly saved his life during World War I.

The violent event, however, proved disastrous for the political career of Hoover, whose chances at reelection were dealt a massive blow by the negative publicity. He lost the presidential election in a landslide to Democrat Franklin D. Most of the marchers accepted jobs in the CCC, a newly created public work-relief program that lasted through Those who chose not to work for the CCC by the May 22 deadline were given transportation home from Washington.

As the United States faced its longest and deepest economic downturn in the Great Depression, for most people, spending money on entertainment was out of the question. The culture of escapism of the s revolved around finding innovative and inexpensive forms of entertainment that diverted attention from the pressing problems and hardships of everyday life for millions of Americans. As it had for hundreds of years, music continued to enjoy wild popularity as a form of entertainment.

In the s, however, it took on added importance as music cost the audience little or nothing and diverted public attention from everyday economic troubles. Americans loved a variety of music genres in the s, with big band and jazz music maintaining popularity following their explosion onto the national cultural scene in the previous decade. Following World War I, many jazz musicians from New Orleans migrated to major northern cities such as Chicago and New York, leading to a wider dispersal of jazz as different styles developed in different cities.

History Brief: Daily Life in the 1930s

As the s progressed, jazz rose in popularity and helped to generate a cultural shift. Because of its popularity in speakeasies, illegal nightclubs where alcohol was sold during Prohibition, and its proliferation due to the emergence of more advanced recording devices, jazz became very popular in a short amount of time, with stars including Cab Calloway and Chick Webb. Big-band jazz, like that of James Reese in Europe and Fletcher Henderson in New York, was also popular on the radio and brought an African-American style and influence to a predominantly white cultural scene.

One of the exceptions was Duke Ellington and his big band, who played several types of music from blues to gospel to jazz and more. Duke Ellington : Duke Ellington was one of the most popular jazz musicians and big-band leaders who became well known in the s and remained popular in the s. In the s, listening to radio broadcasts became a source of nearly free entertainment for millions of Americans, and radio stations had a little bit of everything for listeners of all ages. Since the s, radio had provided Americans with a trendy new avenue for exploring unfamiliar cultural experiences from the comfort of their living rooms.

In the s, American adults frequently listened to newscasts, radio theater, soap operas, religious sermons, and entertainment programs. President Franklin D. Singer Bing Crosby first gained recognition on radio shows in the early s, while famed comedy duo Abbott and Costello made their first known radio performance on The Kate Smith Hour in Its popularity swelled in the s as singers and musicians performed country, bluegrass, folk, and gospel music, as well as comedic performances and skits.

The show was so loved that merchandise such as Annie pins became popular items for children. At its height, the radio program had an estimated six million listeners and remained on the air until There were two film adaptations in the s, the first by David O. Selznick in for RKO and the next by Paramount in The show later saw a huge revival as a theater musical, appearing first on Broadway from through and appearing internationally on stage and screen ever since.

Collections in the Archives

They released a flood of films to satisfy the public clamor for escapism, a departure into a world of fantasy that provided a way to forget the pain and drudgery of the period. Comedies were popular films in the s, as a good laugh eased the mind in a time of adversity. Toward the late s, movies from foreign countries also began to play in American theaters. The late s saw the emergence of Walt Disney and his eponymous studio. Mickey would go on to star in more than cartoon shorts, as well as in The Mickey Mouse Club and other specials.

This jump-started Walt Disney Studios and led to the creation of numerous other characters going into the s. Walt Disney : Animator Walt Disney became a pioneering legend in the film industry with films that became popular in the s including Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Skip to main content. The Roaring Twenties: — Search for:. The Great Depression The Great Depression The Great Depression was a decade-long period of poverty and unemployment that followed the stock market crash. Learning Objectives Identify the central causes of the Great Depression. Loans to foreign nations after World War I became problematic in the s as European countries lacked the means to repay the loans, destabilizing American debt markets.

Farm prices began to fall in the post-war period and farmers, already deeply in debt, could not pay back their creditors. After the stock market crash on October 29, , banks began to fail in , which caused a massive, nation-wide demand on banks as depositors hurried to convert their savings into currency. The collapse of the banks and stock markets led to widespread factory closures and foreclosures, leading to millions of unemployed and dispossessed Americans during the s. Great Depression : A major economic collapse that lasted from to in the United States.

The Human Toll The Great Depression caused widespread homelessness and illness, fueled discrimination, and increased migrant labor. The Black Shirts, a racist southern group, recruited more than 40, people to proscribe African Americans from working as paid labor before white people. Key Terms migrant worker : An agricultural laborer who travels from place to place harvesting seasonal crops. Dust Bowl : American prairie lands in the s that suffered major ecological and agricultural damage as a result of severe dust storms. Hoovervilles : The slang name for shantytowns built by homeless people during the Great Depression.

They were contemptuously named for President Herbert Hoover, whose policies were blamed for the economic strife.

Great Depression History

Learning Objectives Analyze the fiscal and monetary tools that Hoover used to combat the Great Depression. Despite calls for greater government assistance, Hoover refused to fund welfare programs that he believed would reduce incentives to work. This was met with much opposition in France and Britain and did little to ease economic declines. Key Terms Mexican Repatriation program : A mass, forced migration that took place from through , when between , and 2 million Mexicans and people of Mexican descent were forced or pressured to leave the United States.

The event, carried out by American authorities, took place without due process.

Revenue Act of : A law that raised U. It doubled the estate tax and raised corporate taxes by almost 15 percent. Hoover Moratorium : A public statement issued by U. President Herbert Hoover on June 20, , proposing a one-year moratorium on payments of World War I and other war debt and postponing the initial payments and the interest; Hoover hoped it would ease the coming international economic crisis.

Learning Objectives Discuss the demands of the Bonus Army marchers and the outcome of their campaign. Senate failed to pass a Bonus Bill allowing veterans to receive early payments. Hoover eventually ordered the eviction of the Bonus Army from Washington and violence ensued, greatly damaging his reelection campaign. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled, manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state, and local governments. Walter Waters : — A former U.

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The veterans sought immediate payment of service certificates, essentially additional pay, promised to them by Congress in the World War Adjusted Compensation Act of and scheduled for payment in Learning Objectives Describe the role the arts played in helping Americans endure the Great Depression. Key Takeaways Key Points Spending money on entertainment was a luxury that few could afford during the Depression.

Latin America and the Great Depression - Econlib

The Great Depression did not stop at America's borders. It moved to Britain, Europe, and beyond. And it brought extremely hard economic conditions. In Germany, the value of the national currency -- the mark -- collapsed. German people were forced to buy goods with hundreds, thousands, and millions of marks. They lost faith in the existing system. And they looked for some new leader to provide solutions. The economic crisis also put great pressure on the international circle of debt that had been created after the war.

Suddenly, American bankers could no longer make loans to Germany. And without this money, the Allied nations could not repay money they owed American banks. The situation grew steadily worse throughout the early months of nineteen thirty. Hoover finally had to announce that all nations could delay their debt payments to the United States for one year.